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When Fair Competition Ends: Males in Female Sports

Canada’s BillC16 (2017) has had an enormous impact on sports.

While the intended purpose was to eliminate discrimination against any citizen on the basis of “gender identity” and “gender expression,” the unintended consequence has been a misinterpretation of that law in a manner that results in a violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Influential entities such as the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport (CCES) and Canadian Women & Sport (CW&S) have erroneously applied the BillC16 “gender rights” to mean that male born athletes are entitled to self-identify into women’s sports. But due to the distinct and vast differences in morphology between male and female bodies, self-ID in sports results in discrimination against the female athlete on the basis of biological sex – a clear violation of the Charter Rights of Canadian women and girls in sports.

Biological males have a physical advantage over females that range from 10%-160% depending upon the activity and the sport:

  • Heavier by 20-40%

  • Stronger by 30-60% [Especially stronger in UPPER BODY activities]

  • More Explosive by 33%

  • Running 10-15%

  • Kicking 20%

  • Punching 160%

  • Scrum forces in Rugby 40-60%

  • VO2max 20-40%

  • Throwing 20-30%

  • Weights 30-50%

  • Tendons much stiffer

Here is a table showing the clear differences in world records in Track and Field with the Male records far exceeding the Female records.

And here is the chart showing differences in Olympic weightlifting.

Such differences can be seen in every Olympic sport!! We all know this!!


Sports organizations across Canada are being pressured to adopt self-ID policy as if their funding depends upon capitulation to the dogma that biological sex does not exist or that it is irrelevant.

On the contrary!

Biological sex is the ONLY factor that DOES matter in sports!

Gender identity and expression are easily accommodated in sports WITHOUT violating sex-based rights of women and girls. Existing sport policy forbids bullying of any kind.

The key factor is to acknowledge that there is a difference between sex and gender, as members of parliament did very clearly when they passed BillC16.

The solution is for sports governing bodies to stipulate that athletes must compete on the basis of their biological sex, while not being bullied on the basis of additional identity traits such as their religion, political persuasion, sexual orientation, cultural heritage, sociological status, or ideological belief.


In order to address the societal confusion created by BillC16, members of parliament in 2021+ would serve Canadians well by adding exemptions to BillC16 to match the same protections enjoyed by women and girls in the United Kingdom. Indeed, it is incomprehensible that our Canadian MPs would have passed such a law without the accompanying exemptions that would guarantee the protection of our Charter Rights.

Linda Blade is a Certified Performance Coach with a PhD in kinesiology. and has served as President of the Board for Athletics Alberta (Alberta Association for Track & Field, Cross-Country and Road Running) since 2014. She was also previously on Team Canada, winning national titles in the hepathalon and competing internationally. She recently co-authored the book Unsporting with Barbara Kay that you can check out here.

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